Special Issue "Polysaccharides: Organic Chemistry, Bioactivity and Analysis, including Those from Medicinal Plants and Fungi"
[Call for Papers] [Published Papers] [Leading Review Papers] [List of Keywords]
Deadline for paper submission: 1 June 2008

Important additional information, Open Access:
This special issue will be fully Open Access with publishing fees paid by authors (see http://www.mdpi.org/oaj-supports.htm). Open Access increases publicity and promotes more frequent citations as indicated by several studies. (Added on 9 November 2007)

Gues Editor
Dr. Shaoping Li
Associate Professor,  Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau (People's Republic of China)
http://www.umac.mo/icms/staff/alsp_e.html; Tel: 00853-397 4692, Fax: 00853-2884 1358; E-mail: SPLi@umac.mo

Keywords:
Organic chemistry, Chemical characteristic, Analysis
Medicinal chemistry
Material science, Biomaterials
Bioassay, Pharmacological activity, Medicinal plant, Herb, Herbal medicine, Chinese medicine, Fungus, Mushroom.

Review papers to be considered and published:

Open Access
Giuseppina Tommonaro*, Annarita Poli, Salvatore De Rosa and Barbara Nicolaus
Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (C.N.R.), Via Campi Flegrei, 34 80078 Pozzuoli (Napoli), Italy; E-mails: apoli@icb.cnr.it (A. Poli);
sderosa@icb.cnr.it (S. De Rosa); bnicolaus@icbcnr.it (B. Nicolaus)
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-mail: giuseppina.tommonaro@icb.cnr.it; Phone: +39-81-8675104; Fax: +39-81-8041770
Received: 30 May 2008; in revised form: 17 June 2008 / Accepted: 17 June 2008 / Published: 19 June 2008
Review: Tomato Derived Polysaccharides for Biotechnological Application: Chemical and Biological Approaches
Molecules 2008, 13, 1384-1398 (PDF format 412 K); DOI: 10.3390/molecules13061384

Open Access
Josias H. Hamman
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa; E-mail: hammanjh@tut.ac.za; Tel.: +27 12 382 6397; Fax: + 27 12 382 6243
Received: 28 May 2008 / Accepted: 25 July 2008 / Published: 8 August 2008
Review: Composition and Applications of Aloe vera Leaf Gel
Molecules 2008, 13, 1599-1616 (PDF format 227 K); DOI: 10.3390/molecules13081599

Open Access
Bo Li*, Fei Lu, Xinjun Wei and Ruixiang Zhao
School of Food Science, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang 453003, Henan, P.R. China; E-mails: libohnxx@163.com (Fei Lu), wxj@hist.edu.cn (Xinjun Wei), zrx338@163.com (Ruixiang Zhao)
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-mail: libowuxi@yahoo.com.cn.
Received: 27 May 2008; in revised form: 23 June 2008 / Accepted: 30 July 2008 / Published: 12 August 2008
Review: Fucoidan: Structure and Bioactivity
Molecules 2008, 13, 1671-1695 (PDF format 297 K); DOI: 10.3390/molecules13081671

Open Access
Naozumi Teramoto 1,*, Navzer D. Sachinvala 2, † and Mitsuhiro Shibata 1
1 Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016, Japan; E-mail: teramoto-n@sea.it-chiba.ac.jp
2 Retired, Southern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, New Orleans, LA, USA; Home: 2261 Brighton Place, Harvey, LA 70058; E-mail: Sachinvala@cox.net
†Dedicated to Professor George Christensen, Department of Psychology, Winona State University, Winona, MN, USA.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-mail: teramoto-n@sea.it-chiba.ac.jp.
Received: 13 July 2008 / Accepted: 11 August 2008 / Published: 21 August 2008
Review: Trehalose and Trehalose-based Polymers for Environmentally Benign, Biocompatible and Bioactive Materials
Molecules 2008, 13, 1773-1816 (PDF format 1743 K); DOI: 10.3390/molecules13081773

Open Access
Giovanna Gomez d’Ayala, Mario Malinconico and Paola Laurienzo *
Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Polimeri, C.N.R.-Via Campi Flegrei, 34- 80078 Pozzuoli (Naples), Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-mail: paola.laurienzo@ictp.cnr.it.
Received: 26 May 2008; in revised form: 2 July 2008 / Accepted: 25 July 2008 / Published: 3 September 2008
Review: Marine Derived Polysaccharides for Biomedical Applications: Chemical Modification Approaches
Molecules 2008, 13, 2069-2106 (PDF format 1702 K); DOI: 10.3390/molecules13092069

Molecules Manuscript ID: polyssacharides-20071121-Verli-br
Type of the paper: Review
Tentative Title: From Conformation to Function: Current Status of Polysaccharides Analysis through Molecular Modeling
Author: Hugo Verli
E-mail: hverli@cbiot.ufrgs.br
Abstract: The rapid undergoing development of glycomics is progressively unraveling the intimate evolvement of carbohydrates and polysaccharides, as obtained from different sources in nature, within several biological events, such as cell differentiation, adhesion and recognition, as well as the modulation of a broad spectrum of target receptors, resulting in numerous biological activities. Such properties of glycans derive from its chemical properties and interaction with the surrounding environment, resulting in a complex spectrum of three-dimensional arrangements governing its interactions with specific receptors. The obtaining of data about the structure and/or dynamics of such recognition events may be supported by techniques as X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. While each technique has its own limitations, the continuous advances in hardware and software has been switching the paradigm that computer simulations necessarily lies on a trade-off between accuracy and efficiency. In this context, the current review focus on the recent advances of glycans analysis based on computational description of its structure and dynamics, from carbohydrate-aromatic interactions to the conformational sampling of molecules in time scales closer to those relevant to biological phenomena, passing through description of solvent effects on conformer populations, ultimately relying on its capabilities to contribute and support the description and prediction of important aspects related to polysaccharides structure, conformation and biological properties.

Molecules Manuscript ID: polysaccharides-20071127-Mourao-br
Type of the paper: Review
Title: Sulfated Polysacharides from Marine Organisms
Authors: Vitor H. Pomin and Paulo A.S. Mourăo
E-mail: pmourao@hucff.ufrj.br, vhpomin@gmail.com
Abstract: Sulfated fucans and sulfated galactans from marine algae have complex and heterogeneous structures but recent studies revealed the occurrence of repeat units in these polysaccharides from several species. Even in this case, the presence of highly branched portions and the complex distributions of sulfate and acetyl groups highlight the heterogeneity of algal polysaccharides. Another source of sulfated polysaccharides is marine invertebrates. The invertebrate polysaccharides have simple, ordered structures, which differ in the specific patterns of sulfation and/or position of the glycosidic linkages within their repeating units. The algal and invertebrate sulfated fucans and sulfated galactans have potent anticoagulant activity, mediated by antithrombin and/or heparin cofactor II. As most of the studies were carried out with algal polysaccharides it was not easy to trace a structure-activity relationship. This aspect was clarified as studies were extended to invertebrate polysaccharides. These definitively established that regular, linear sulfated a-L-fucans and sulfated a-L-galactans express anticoagulant activity, which is not simply a function of charge density, but depends critically on the pattern of sulfation and monosaccharide composition. NMR was an essential technique to determine the structure of the algal and invertebrate polysaccharides. But even more, investigation of NMR parameters may give important information about conformation of these polysaccharides in solution and their complexes with proteins. Novel NMR methods, such as Residual Dipolar Coupling and Saturation Transfer Experiments, may be used to elucidate structural features of the extended polysaccharides in solution. Furthermore, we predict that NMR may be used to study the interaction of sulfated polysaccharides with their target proteins of the coagulation system. These polysaccharides constitute potential therapeutic compounds, alternative to heparin. The complete understanding of their mechanism of action may help to design structure-based drugs with specific activity on each type of thrombosis episode and few side effects. They can also serve as research reagents to investigate and distinguish among a variety of interrelated events, such as coagulation, bleeding, thrombosis and platelet aggregation.

Research Papers

Open Access
Zhenlin Xu 1, Youhui Yang 1, Yueming Jiang 2, Yuanming Sun 1,*, Yudong Shen 1 and Jie Pang 1,3
1 College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, P. R. China; E-mails: jallent@163.com; yhyang@scau.edu.cn; shenyudong@scau.edu.cn
2 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, P. R. China; E-mail: ymjiang@scbg.ac.cn
3 College of Food Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, R. China; E-mail: pang3721941@163.com
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-mail: ymsun@scau.edu.cn
Received: 16 January 2008; in revised form: 20 February 2008 / Accepted: 20 February 2008 / Published: 1 March 2008
Full Paper: Synthesis and Characterization of Konjac Glucomannan-Graft-Polyacrylamide via γ-Irradiation
Molecules 2008, 13, 490-500 (PDF format 301 K)

Open Access
Aleš Mráček 1,*, Júlia Varhaníková 1, Marián Lehocký 2, Lenka Gřundělová 1, Alena Pokopcová 1 and Vladimír Velebný 3
1 Department of Physics and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Nad Stráněmi 4511, 76005 Zlín, Czech Republic; E-mails: juliavarhanikova@seznam.cz; Grundy.L@seznam.cz; salinka.p@azet.sk
2 Medical Materials Research Centre, Technology park, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Nad Ovcirnou III 3685, Zlín, 76001 Czech Republic; E-mail: lehocky@post.cz
3 CPN Ltd., Dolní Dobrouč 401, 561 02 Dolní Dobrouč, Czech Republic; E-mail: velebny@contipro.cz
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: mracek@ft.utb.cz; Fax: +420576035141; Tel: +420576035102
Received: 28 February 2008; in revised form: 17 April 2008 / Accepted: 30 April 2008 / Published: 1 May 2008
Full Research Paper: The Influence of Hofmeister Series Ions on Hyaluronan Swelling and Viscosity
Molecules 2008, 13, 1025-1034 (PDF format 161 K) DOI: 10.3390/molecules13051025

Open Access
Vincent Gloaguen 1,*, Pierre Krausz 1, Véronique Brudieux 1,2, Brigitte Closs 2, Yves Leroy 3 and Yann Guerardel 3
1 Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles (UPRES-EA 1069), Université de Limoges, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, 123 rue A. Thomas, 87060 Limoges, France
2 R&D Department, SILAB, ZI de la Nau, 19240 Saint-Viance, France
3 Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale, UMR-CNRS 8576, Université de Lille, F-59655, France
* Author to whom correspondance should be addressed; E-mail: vincent.gloaguen@unilim.fr. Phone: +33 555457481.
Received: 13 March 2008; in revised form: 19 May 2008 / Accepted: 19 May 2008 / Published: 27 May 2008
Article: Structural Patterns of Rhamnogalacturonans Modulating Hsp-27 Expression in Cultured Human Keratinocytes
Molecules 2008, 13, 1207-1218 (PDF format 98 K); DOI: 10.3390/molecules13051207

Open Access
Hossein Tajik 1, Mehran Moradi 1,*, Seyed Mehdi Razavi Rohani 1, Amir Mehdi Erfani 2 and Farnood Shokouhi Sabet Jalali 3
1 Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, 1177, Urmia, Iran
2 General Office of Veterinary, 45169-43374, Zanjan, Iran
3 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, 1177, Urmia, Iran.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: m.moradi@urmia.ac.ir; Tel.: +98- 441 2972512; Fax: +98-441 2771926
Received: 24 April 2008; in revised form: 8 May 2008 / Accepted: 9 May 2008 / Published: 6 June 2008
Article: Preparation of Chitosan from Brine Shrimp (Artemia urmiana) Cyst Shells and Effects of Different Chemical Processing Sequences on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of the Product
Molecules 2008, 13, 1263-1274 (PDF format 147 K); DOI: 10.3390/molecules13061263

Open Access
Wei-Ting Hung
1, Shwu-Huey Wang 2, Chung-Hsuan Chen 1 and Wen-Bin Yang 1,*
1 Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, No. 128, Academia Road Section 2, Nan-Kang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
2 Instrument Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel.: +886-2-27899930 ext.339; Fax: +886-2-27899931; E-mail: wbyang@gate.sinica.edu.tw
Received: 26 May 2008; in revised form 21 June 2008 / Accepted: 25 July 2008 / Published: 3 August 2008
Article: Structure Determination of β-Glucans from Ganoderma lucidum with Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/ionization (MALDI) Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2008, 13, 1538-1550 (PDF format 482 K); DOI: 10.3390/molecules13081538

Molecules Manuscript ID: polysaccharides-20080109-Vicente-es
Type of the paper: Review
Title: Structure and biosynthesis of a xanthan-like polysaccharide  produced by Xanthomonas albilineans
Authors: Laura Arribas, María Blanch, María-Estrella Legaz and Carlos Vicente*
E-mail: cvicente@bio.ucm.es
Abstract: Leaf scald is a vascular disease of sugarcane plants caused by Xanthomonas albilineans. Scalded leaves show white-yellowish streaks alternating with green zones in parallel to the main veins. The white-yellowish streaks show both phloem and xylem completely occluded by the gum and the overall mesophyll appears to be full of this bacterial secretion, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The gum in conducting tissues has been purified from juices obtained from scalded stalks by precipitation with isopropyl alcohol and size-exclusion chromatography. It was identified as a xanthan-like polysaccharide and found to be composed by glucose, mannose and glucuronic acid by acidic hydrolysis and capillary electrophoresis. Depending on the time of hydrolysis, cellobiose can also be identified as well as traces of glucose-1-P. The ratio of free glucose or cellobiose to mannose and glucuronic acid was calculated as 2.1 and 2.04, respectively-On these bases, it can be proposed that X. albilineans gum is composed by repeated tetrameric units containing two rests of fructose, one of mannose and one of glucuronic acid. This composition differs from that of the xanthan produced by X. campestris, formed by repeated pentameric units consisting of two glucose, two mannose and one glucuronic acid rests. Hydrolysis of xanthan with selective mannosidases and
b-1,4-glucanases reveals that the macromolecule consists of a linear, b-1,4-backbone of b-glucose units to which mannose in b-1,3 bonds is linked.
Since xanthans contain glucuronic acid, the ability of Xanthomonas to produce an active UDP glucose dehydrogenase is often seen as a virulence factor. X. albilineans produces a UDP-glucose dehydrogenase growing on sucrose. The enzyme oxidizes UDP-glucose to UDP-glucuronic acid by using molecular oxygen and NADPH. Kinetics of enzymatic oxidation of NADPH is linearly dependent on the amount of oxygen supplied. The enzyme has been purified at homogeneity. The value of pI of the purified enzyme is 8.98 and its molecular mass has been estimated as about 14 kDa. The enzyme shows a michaelian kinetics for UDP-glucose concentrations. The value of Km for UDP-glucose is 0.87mM and 0.26mM for NADPH, although the enzyme has three different sites to interact with NADPH. The enzyme is inhibited by UDP-glucose concentrations higher than 1.3 mM. N-Terminal sequence has been determined as IQPYNH.

X. albilineans
axenically cultured did not secrete xanthans to Willbrink liquid media. Thus, the use of inoculated sugarcane tissues for producing and characterizing xanthans has been required. This host-dependence can be explained on the basis of the action of bacterial proteases upon the dehydrogenase. In vitro enzymatic assay of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from X. albilineans requires the addition of a protease-inhibitors cocktail to cell-free extracts, since bacterial proteases rapidly hydrolyses the enzyme in solution. The addition of low amounts of 8-azaguanine and chloramphenicol to the culture medium do not impede the production of the dehydrogenase that requires concentrations higher than 0.3 mM of both antimetabolites to inhibit its synthesis, concentration that is sufficient to inhibit the production of proteases. Glycoproteins from sugarcane, the natural host of the bacterium, also assure the production of the active enzyme by inhibiting bacterial proteases.

Published Papers:

Papers published in Molecules up to 2007:

Open Access
Tommasina Coviello 1,*, Antonio Palleschi 2, Mario Grassi 3, Pietro Matricardi 1, Gianfranco Bocchinfuso 2 and Franco Alhaique 1
1 Department of Chemistry and Technology of Biologically Active Compounds, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.le Aldo Moro, 00185 Rome, Italy.
2 Department of Sciences and Chemical Technologies, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via de la Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome, Italy.
3 Department of Chemical Engineering, Environment and Raw Materials, University of Trieste, P.le Europa 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; e-mail: tommasina.coviello@uniroma1.it.
Scleroglucan: A Versatile Polysaccharide for Modified Drug Delivery
Molecules 2005, 10, 6-33 (PDF format 2082 K)

Open Access
Dorota Najgebauer,1  Tadeusz Grega,1 Marek Sady 1 and Piotr Tomasik 2,*
1 Department of Animal Product Technology, Agricultural University, Cracow, Poland.
2 Department of Chemistry, Agricultural University, Mickiewicz Ave., 21, 31 120 Cracow, Poland, Tel/Fax: (+48) 12-662-43-35.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-mail: rrtomasi@cyf-kr.edu.pl
Polymeric Complexes of Cornstarch and Waxy Cornstarch Phosphates with Milk Casein and Their Performance as Biodegradable Materials
Molecules 2004, 9, 550-567 (PDF format 249 K)


Leading Papers (most of these are review papers):
  1. Mazumder, S.; Lerouge, P.; Loutelier-Bourhis, C.; Driouich, A.; Ray, B. Structural characterisation of hemicellulosic polysaccharides from Benincasa hispida using specific enzyme hydrolysis, ion exchange chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. Carbohydr. Polym. 2005, 59, 231–238.
  2. Xu, H.; Zhang, Y.Y.; Zhang, J.W.; Chen, D.F.. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2007, 7, 175182.
  3. Omarsdottir, S.; Petersen, B.O.; Paulsen, B.S.; Togola, A.; Duusb, J.; Olafsdottir, E.S. Carbohydr. Res. 2006, 341, 2449–2455.
  4. Jia, L.M.; Liu, L.; Dong, Q.; Fang, J.N.. Carbohydr. Res. 2004, 339, 2667-2671.
  5. Ga, O.G.de; Martıneza, M.; Sanabria, L.; Pinto, G.L.de; Igartuburu, J.M.. Food Hydrocol. 2005, 19, 37–43.
  6. Reis, R.A.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Iacomini, M.. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 2002, 210, 1-5.
  7. Yang, J.H.; Du, Y.M.; Huang, R.H.; Wan, Y.Y.; Li, T.Y.. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2002, 31, 55-62.
  8. Barton, C.J.; Tailford, L.E.; Welchman, H.; Zhang, Z.; Gilbert, H.J.; Dupree, P.; Goubet, F.. Planta 2006, 224, 163–174.
  9. Wang, Q.J.; Fang, Y.Z.. J. Chromatogr. B 2004, 812, 309–324.
  10. Zhang, M.; Cui, S.W.; Cheung, P.C.K.; Wang, Q.. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 2007, 18, 4-19.
  11. Volpi, N.; Maccari, F.. J. Chromatogr. B  2006, 834, 1–13.
  12. Paulsen, B.S.; Olafsdottir, E.S.; Ingolfsdottir, K.. J. Chromatogr. A  2002, 967, 163–171.
  13. Lo, T.C.T.; Jiang, Y.H.; Chao, A.L.J.; Chang, C.A.. Anal. Chimica. Acta 2007, 584,  50–56.
  14. Ban, E.; Choi, O.; Ryu, J.; Yoo, Y.S.. Electrophoresis 2001, 22, 2217–2221.
  15. Hui,C.W.; Di, X.. J. Chromatogr. B 2004, 812, 241–257.
  16. Li, S.P.; Zhang, G.H.; Zeng, Q.; Huang, Z.G.; Wang, Y.T.; Dong, T.T.X.; Tsim, K.W.K.. Phytomedicine 2006, 13, 428-433.
  17. Lin, Z.B.; Zhang, H.N.. Acta. Pharmacol. Sin. 2004, 25, 1387-1395.
  18. Schepetkin, I.A.; Quinn, M.T.. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2006, 6, 317– 333.
  19. Chen, J.R.; Hu, T.J.; Zheng, R.L.. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2007, 7, 547–553.
  20. Lin, Y.L.; Zhang, L.N.; Chen, L.; Jin, Y.; Zeng, F.B.; Jin, J.; Wan, B.; Cheung, P.C.K.. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2004, 34, 231–236.
Manuscripts should be prepared according to the Instructions for Authors and submitted before 1 June 2008
by e-mail to molecules@mdpi.org and a copy to SPLi@umac.mo and mcphee@mdpi.org. The subject title of the message should be "Manuscript for Special Issue on Polysaccharides".
 
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Last update: 3 September 2008