Special Issue: "Pathogen Sensors" - Sensors Journal

Guest Editor
Dr. Joseph Irudayaraj

Associate Professor of Biological Engineering
Agricultural & Biological Engineering
Purdue University
225 S. University Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2093
Office: ABE 215; Phone: (765) 494-0388, Fax: (765) 496-1115
E-mail: josephi@purdue.edu; http://www.purdue.edu/dp/psf/joseph.php
Deadline for Paper submission: 31 May 2009

The special issue on "Pathogen Sensors" will be a compendium of some of the most recent research on "Pathogen Sensors" including but not limited to developing technologies to detect and/or  characterize pathogenic agents related to plant, food, soil, animal, and human systems. Thus we set to address biosensors based on electrochemical, optical, mass, acoustic, magnetic, and immuno-based concepts addressing any aspect of detection in biology including sample preparation methodologies. Biomemitic sensors and research exploring pathogen capturing molecules besides standard antibodies, such as aptamers, peptides, carbohydrate-lipid-based linkers are also of interest. Industry standards on biosensors need to be addressed, articles dealing with biosensor standardization will be entertained.

Pathogens, Virus, Infectious/threat agents, Biosensors, Sensors, Detection, Diseases (human and animal), Agriculture (Plant, soil, airborne), Food safety, Security

Planned Papers

Title: Apparent Thixotropic Properties of Saline/Glycerol Drops with Biotinylated Antibodies on Streptavidin-Coated Glass Slides: Implications for Bacterial Capture on Antibody Microarrays
Authors: D. Albin, A. Gehring, S. Reed, & S. Tu
USDA-ARS-ERRC, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA  19038 USA; voice: 1-215-233-6491, fax: 1-215-836-3742; e-mail: andrew.gehring@ars.usda.gov; web: http://www.ars.usda.gov/pandp/people/people.htm?personid=1956
Abstract: to be added soon

Title: Advances in Microbial Biofilm Prevention on Indwelling Medical Devices Using Acoustic Energy
Authors: Naama Dror 1, Mathilda Mandel 2, Zadik Hazan 3 and Gad Lavie 1,2
1 Department of Cellular and Developmental Biology, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv,
2 Blood Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer,
3 Regenera Pharma, Rehovot, Israel
Abstract: Microbial biofilms constitute a major impediment to administration of indwelling medical devices of all types, urinary, endotracheal, intravenous and others. These biofilms elicit device-related infections that cause high rates of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, adding significantly to the cost of hospitalization. Major efforts are being directed towards prevention and eradication of the biofilm problem. Biofilm colonies effectively protect themselves by producing an extracellular polysaccharide matrix coating, which regulates the influx of ions and nutrients. This structure reduces biofilm sensitivity to antibiotics by several orders of magnitude. Techniques applied to combat the microbial biofilm problem have been primarily chemical. The most common approaches include coating of catheter surfaces with antimicrobial agents, or modulating the properties of the device surface material. They met with only partial and limited success rates leading to the current trend of diverting biofilm combating efforts to physico-mechanical strategies. Here we review the different approaches that have been developed to control biofilm formation, and focus on uses of acoustic energy as tools to achieve biofilm removal as well as biofilm prevention. We also elaborate on our own contribution to this field and on the advantages and limitations of the various approaches.

Title: Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation Systems for Food Quality: Revisited.
Authors: Dr. Vassilis S. Kodogiannis
Centre for Systems Analysis, School of Computer Science, University of Westminster, London HA1 3TP, UK
Abstract: Advanced sensors and instrumentation systems are becoming increasingly important in the classification, characterisation, authentication and safety management of food products.
A food quality sensor is a device which can respond to some property or properties of food and transform the response(s) into a signal, often an electric signal. This signal may provide direct information about the quality factor(s) to be measured or may have a known relation to the quality factor. Usually, sensors are classified according to their mode of use: on-line, at-line or off-line. On-line sensors operate directly in the process stream, giving a real-time signal which relates to the quality factor in question. Thus, an on-line sensor has the advantage of giving an immediate quality measurement and provides possibilities for regulating the process by adjustments. At-line sensors are devices to be used for instance in split-flow measurements, requiring reagent additions or equilibrations/reaction times. They often have short response times (minutes or seconds) and also allow process corrections. On the contrary, off-line sensors are laboratory devices, responding within hours or days.
Quality control is essential in the food industry and efficient quality assurance is becoming increasingly important. Consumers expect adequate quality at a given price, good shelf-life and high safety while food inspections require good manufacturing practices, safety, labelling and compliance with the regulations. Further, food producers are increasingly asking for efficient control methods, in particular through on-line or at-line quality sensors, firstly to satisfy the consumer and regulatory requirements and secondly to improve the production feasibility, quality sorting, automation and reduction of production cost and production time (increased throughputs).
Thus, all three drivers of on-line quality control, consumers, authorities and food producers, have great interest in the development of new sensing systems which are beyond the existing on-line technologies, like control of weight, volume, temperature, pH, viscosity, colour and appearance. Additionally, many new food safety concepts and key quality parameters have arisen during the last decade: Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), Total Quality Management (TQM), ISO 9000 Certifications, traceability, and authentication all require improved control methods. Besides, pathogenic microorganisms, BSE, GMO and many pollutants are specific safety problems which require intensive control, data logging and data treatments.
The aim of this review study is to present the various sensor technologies currently utilised in Food Data Analysis, as well as their applicability in various aspects of food chain. The review will also address state-of-the-art sensorial schemes based on nano-technology.

Title: Development of a Novel, Ultra-rapid Biosensor for the Detection of Hepatits B Virus, Based on “Membrane-engineered” Fibroblast Cells with Virus-specific Antibodies
Authors: Perdikaris Antonios 1, Nikos Alexandropoulos 2 and Kintzios Spiridon 1,3*
1     Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Biotechnology, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece
2     Hippokration General Hospital, Microbiology Division, Vas. Sofias Av. 114,  Athens, Greece
3     EMBIO Diagnostics Project, Nicosia, Cyprus
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; Tel. +30 210 529 429; Fax. +30 210 529 4286; E-Mail: skin@aua.gr
Abstract: A novel miniature cell biosensor detection system is described. The biosensor is based on “membrane-engineered” Vero fibroblast cells immobilized in an alginate matrix. The membrane-engineering process involved the electroinsertion of Hepatis B virus (HBV) specific antibodies in the membranes of the Vero cells. The attachment of a homologous virus triggers specific changes to the cell membrane potential that is measured by appropriate microelectrodes, according to the principle of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA). No change in the membrane potential was observed upon cell contact with heterologous hepatitis viruses, such as Hepatitis C (HCV) or Hepatitis A (HAV) viruses. The observed response was rapid (45 sec) and quite reproducible. Fluorescence microscopy observations showed that attachment of HBV particles to membrane-engineered cells was associated with membrane hyperpolarization and increased [Ca2+]cyt. The described novel biosensor could offer a new perspective for a sensitive, selective and low cost detection of Hepatitis viruses.
Keywords: Bioelectric recognition assay, Cell biosensor, Membrane-engineering, Hepatitis viruses, Vero.

Title: A Time Course Study of the Effect of Glucose Sensor implantation on Tissue mRNA expression in Subcutis of Pigs
Authors: Peter Helding Kvist, Henrik Elvang Jensen and Harry Dale Dawson
Principal Research Scientist, Disease Pharmacology, DVM, PhD, LEO Pharma A/S, 55, Industriparken · 2750 Ballerup · Denmark
Phone     +45 44 94 58 88, Direct     +45 72 26 37 57, Mobile     +45 25 66 40 61, Fax     +45 72 26 33 21, CVR no.     56759514
E-mail     peter.kvist@leo-pharma.com, Web     www.leo-pharma.com
Abstract: Background: Tight glycaemic control has the potential to reduce long- and short-term effects of diabetes mellitus. New and improved glucose sensors for short-term implantation in subcutis offer an alternative to the classical self-monitored blood glucose concentration in the management of diabetes. The use of glucose sensors is an advantage to the latter due to its capacity to obtain continuous glucose measurements. However, instability of in vivo glucose sensor measurements has been reported and this bioinstability is likely to be influenced by the inflammatory reaction to the implanted sensor.
Methods: Tissue around a glucose sensor was sampled to different time points (2 h, 24 h, 3 days, and 7 days) after implantation in subcutis of pigs. From the tissue RNA was extracted, cDNA synthesised, and real time RT-PCR was performed for the quantification of immunoregulatory genes.
Results:  Genes coding for adhesion molecules, chemokines, cytokines, CD markers, and antigen presentation molecules were differentially expressed over time. Most of the investigated genes were significantly upregulated 24 h and 7 days after implantation.
Conclusion: The inflammatory reaction to a subcutaneously implanted glucose sensor involves elements of innate and adaptive immunity as assessed by real time RT-PCR.

Title: Optical and Electrochemical Characterization of Conductor Polymer for Pesticide Detection
Authors: H.ben Fredj, S. Helali, C. Esseghaier, A. Bouafssoun, A. Abdelghani *
Unité de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST, 2070 La Marsa, Tunisia.
*Corresponding author : Tel : 00216 71 74 00 48, fax : 00216 71 746 551, e-mail: aabdelghan@yahoo.fr
Abstract: In recent years, conducting polymers have been paid more attention due to their potential applications in microelectronics, microsystems, optical sensors and photoelectronic chemistry.
The work presented in this paper describes the preparation and characterization of a nanocomposite composed by a thin polyaniline film for biosensor application. Structural, morphological and electrochemical studies were performed on polyaniline film prepared in different solvents and electrolytes. Based on neutravidin entrapment inside the electrogenerated polyaniline followed by specific Fab fragment-antibody grafting, atrazine biosensorr was developed. The impedance measurements with polyaniline polymer reveal that biosensor could detect significantly 0.05 ng/ml atrazine. For unspecific detection, no response was recorded after injection of different concentrations of rabbit Ig G.

Title: Review on biochips for electrical detection of biomolecules
Author: Ping-Hei Chen
Distinguished Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Program Director, Division of Thermal, Fluid, and Energy, Department of Engineering and Applied Science, National Science Council
Abstract: will be added soon

Title: Protein motor F0F1-ATPase as biosensor
Author: Yue Jiachang
National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
We summarize the Recently our lab use ATPase within chromatophore as rotary biosensor for the purpose of capturing virus, MicroRNAs (miRNAs), drugs, proteins,and bacterium. The Capture was based on antibody–antigen reaction. The detection  based on proton flux change driven by ATP-synthesis of F0F1-ATPase, which was indicated by F1300/ Qdots by fluorescence device . The results demonstrate that the biosensor loading of different samples has remarkable signal-to-noise ratio compared to its control, and will be convenient, free lableled, quick, and even super-sensitive for detecting. our results demonstrated that F0F1-ATPase-based rotary biosensor is a promising research tool that can be applied to large-scale detection combined with the lab-on-a-chip technology in late.
1. Liu XiaoLong, Zhang Yun, Yue Jia Chang *,Jiang PeiDong,Zhang ZhenXi, F0F1-ATPase as biosensor to detect single virus,Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 342 (2006) 1319–1322.
2. Liu Xiao long,Zhang Xiaoai, CuiYuanbo, Yue jiachang*, Pidong Jiang, Mechanically driven proton conduction in single –free βF0F1-ATPase,Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 347 (2006) 752-757.
3. Su Ting, Cui Yuanbo, Zhang Xiaoai,  Yue Jiachang*, Ning and Jiang Peidong, Constructing a novel Nanodevice powered by δ-free FoF1-ATPase, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2006)350,1013-1018.
4. Zhengtao Deng, Yun Zhang, Jiachang Yue,* Fangqiong Tang, Green and Orange CdTe Quantum Dots as Effective pH-Sensitive Fluorescent Probes for Dual Simultaneous and Independent Detection of Viruses, J. Phys. Chem. B, 111 (41), 12024 -12031, 2007. 10.1021/jp,1520-6106(07) September 21, 2007
5. A novel method to detect microRNAs Using F0F1-ATPase as rotary biosensor Jie-Ying Liao, Jie Cheng, Yue jiacahng submitted
6. Zhang Yun, Deng Zhengtao, Yue Jiachang, Tang Fangqiong, Wei Qun,  Using cadmium telluride quantum dots as a proton flux sensor and applying to detect H9 avian influenza virus, Analytical Biochemistry, Volume 364, Issue 2, 15 May 2007, Pages 122-127

Tentative Title: Microcantilever Based Pathogen Sensors
Author: Haifeng (Frank) Ji
Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Phone: 215-895-2562; E-mail: hj56@drexel.edu; http://www.drexel.edu/coas/chemistry/Frank%20Ji/index.htm


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Sensors Journal Special Issues

MDPI - Matthias Burkhalter - 23 Septemberr 2008